Soils are a natural resource on which almost all terrestrial living organisms on Earth depend, with the exception maybe of the species populating the icy poles and those living in the darkness of deep caves. Soil is the foundation where all life on all continents grows and develops. Soil is an ecosystem, a place where thousands, even millions of species of bacteria, algae, insects, worms, snails, insect larvae, mammals, fungi and numerous known and unknown animal species live. Soil is the substrate where all plants on Earth develop, where living organisms get oxygen, which means that soil gives life to the planet. Soil is considered the first, topmost and shallowest layer of the Earth’s crust. Even though this is the thinnest layer, it is the only live and active part of the crust. In the soil there are numerous chemical and biochemical processes that are linked to all natural processes, the cycling of matter and elements and ensuring conditions for life. Depending on the geographical location, there are thousands of types of soils that differ in colour, form, acidity, function and absorption.
Unfortunately, soils are affected by all types of pollution arising from human activity. All pollutants in the air and the atmosphere, even those in water, end on and in the soil, from where they spread through plants and end up in animals and in our food. That is why it is especially important to protect soils from pollution, excessive use and erosion.
1.Protection of forests
Forests cover a significant part of land ecosystems on the planet. By protecting forests, we also protect the soil underneath as well as all living organisms in the soil. Forest cutting exposes soil, which starts to dry and lose its natural properties.
2.Moderate use of pesticides
Pesticides are the greatest threat for soils. They pollute the soil and their effect can last for decades, even centuries. In order to protect farmlands, we must start using pesticides moderately.
3.Protection against erosion
The process of erosion results in huge losses of soil annually. The soil disintegrates, falls apart and is washed away by rain. So soils should be protected from this irreversible loss through various anticorrosive methods and natural solutions.